The role of the state in society and its functions

Meaning, Features and Role of Civil Society! The need to build and strengthen the Civil Society has come to be common theme with all contemporary thinkers, reformers and commentators. Each democratic state fully accepts the need and necessity of Civil Society for a successful working of its democratic government. It can compel the government to continuously work as a representative, responsible, transparent and accountable government of the people.

The role of the state in society and its functions

States generally rely on a claim to some form of political legitimacy in order to maintain domination over their subjects.

The role of the state in society and its functions

Divine right of kings The rise of the modern day state system was closely related to changes in political thought, especially concerning the changing understanding of legitimate state power and control.

Early modern defenders of absolutism Absolute monarchysuch as Thomas Hobbes and Jean Bodin undermined the doctrine of the divine right of kings by arguing that the power of kings should be justified by reference to the people. Hobbes in particular went further to argue that political power should be justified with reference to the individual Hobbes wrote in the time of the English Civil warnot just to the people understood collectively.

Both Hobbes and Bodin thought they were defending the power of kings, not advocating for democracy, but their arguments about the nature of sovereignty were fiercely resisted by more traditional defenders of the power of kings, such as Sir Robert Filmer in England, who thought that such defenses ultimately opened the way to more democratic claims.

Rational-legal authority Max Weber identified three main sources of political legitimacy in his works.

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The first, legitimacy based on traditional grounds is derived from a belief that things should be as they have been in the past, and that those who defend these traditions have a legitimate claim to power. The second, legitimacy based on charismatic leadership is devotion to a leader or group that is viewed as exceptionally heroic or virtuous.

The third is rational-legal authoritywhereby legitimacy is derived from the belief that a certain group has been placed in power in a legal manner, and that their actions are justifiable according to a specific code of written laws.

Weber believed that the modern state is characterized primarily by appeals to rational-legal authority. Agriculture and writing are almost everywhere associated with this process: Since the late 19th century, virtually the entirety of the world's inhabitable land has been parcelled up into areas with more or less definite borders claimed by various states.

Earlier, quite large land areas had been either unclaimed or uninhabited, or inhabited by nomadic peoples who were not organised as states. However, even within present-day states there are vast areas of wilderness, like the Amazon rainforestwhich are uninhabited or inhabited solely or mostly by indigenous people and some of them remain uncontacted.

Also, there are states which do not hold de facto control over all of their claimed territory or where this control is challenged. Currently the international community comprises around sovereign statesthe vast majority of which are represented in the United Nations.

The role of the state in society and its functions

Stateless societies For most of human history, people have lived in stateless societiescharacterized by a lack of concentrated authority, and the absence of large inequalities in economic and political power. The anthropologist Tim Ingold writes: It is not enough to observe, in a now rather dated anthropological idiom, that hunter gatherers live in 'stateless societies', as though their social lives were somehow lacking or unfinished, waiting to be completed by the evolutionary development of a state apparatus.

Rather, the principal of their socialty, as Pierre Clastres has put it, is fundamentally against the state.

Roots of American Government

Neolithic and Copper Age state societies During the Neolithic period, human societies underwent major cultural and economic changes, including the development of agriculturethe formation of sedentary societies and fixed settlements, increasing population densities, and the use of pottery and more complex tools.

It also provided the basis for the centralized state form [79] by producing a large surplus of food, which created a more complex division of labor by enabling people to specialize in tasks other than food production. The ruling classes began to differentiate themselves through forms of architecture and other cultural practices that were different from those of the subordinate laboring classes.

However, modern archaeological and anthropological evidence does not support this thesis, pointing to the existence of several non-stratified and politically decentralized complex societies.

MesopotamiaAncient EgyptIndus Valley Civilizationand Government of the Han Dynasty Mesopotamia is generally considered to be the location of the earliest civilization or complex societymeaning that it contained citiesfull-time division of laborsocial concentration of wealth into capitalunequal distribution of wealthruling classes, community ties based on residency rather than kinshiplong distance trademonumental architecturestandardized forms of art and culture, writing, and mathematics and science.The US Constitution's preamble refers to this function specifically when it declares its intent to "ensure domestic tranquility," an elegant phrase to describe the government's role as society's policeman.

The State is composed of all institutions with implementation and enforcement of government policy, including the parliament, judiciary, public service and defense forces., However, Metzger thinks that she is not the sort of believer that the State is a necessary institution at all.

The role of the state The features of the state interconnects the idealist, functionalist and organization perspectives as it acts in unison in relation to its sovergnity, private and public sectors, legitimating, domination and territorial aspects.

The Civil Society, particularly the Bar Association of Pakistan, played a key role in to compel General Parvez Musharraf to accept the demand for holding democratic and free elections for constituting a democratic government capable of developing Pakistan as a democratic state and society.

The law serves many purposes and functions in society. Four principal purposes and functions are establishing standards, maintaining order, resolving disputes, and protecting liberties and rights. Establishing Standards The law is a guidepost for minimally acceptable behavior in society.

For Marxist theorists, the role of the non-socialist state is determined by its function in the global capitalist order.

Ralph Miliband argued that the ruling class uses the state as its instrument to dominate society by virtue of the interpersonal ties between state officials and economic elites.

The State: Its Historic Role | The Anarchist Library