D keep lists of accomplishments. Which of the follow statements best describes the Humanistic perspective on personality?
Avoiding gender bias does not mean pretending that men and women are the same. There are three main types of gender bias: Alpha bias - this occurs when the differences between men and women are exaggerated.
Therefore, stereotypically male and female characteristics may be emphasised. Beta bias -this occurs when the differences between men and women are minimised. This often happens when findings obtained from men are applied to women without additional validation.
So gender differences distorted to maintain the status quo of male power. Feminist argue that although gender differences are minimal or non-existent, they are used against women to maintain male power. He then inappropriately generalized his findings to women beta bias and also claimed women generally reached lower level of moral development androcentrism.
However, her research is, arguably, also alpha biased, as male and female moral reasoning is more similar than her work suggests. All his theories are androcentric, most obviously: Men predominate at senior researcher level.
This assumes that men and women respond in the same ways to the experimental situation.
Reducing Gender Bias in Psychology AO3 Equal opportunity legislation and feminist psychology have performed the valuable functions of reducing institutionalised gender bias and drawing attention to sources of bias and under-researched areas in psychology like childcare, sexual abuse, dual burden working and prostitution.
Learning Check This activity will help you to: Identify gender biases in psychological theories Discuss the impact of biased research on society Critically assess gender-biased theories Below are two examples of research that could be considered gender biased. Working in pairs or small groups, you need to do the following: Identify aspects of the research that could be considered gender biased 2.
Identify and explain the type of gender bias that is present 3. Suggest the impact that these research examples could have on society You could look, for example, at how the research might uphold or reinforce gender stereotypes, or be used to disempower women in society.
The Psychodynamic View of Personality and Moral Development Freud and many of his followers believed that biological differences between men and women had major consequences for psychological development.
Freud believed that gender divergence begins at the onset of the phallic stage, where the girl realises that she has no penis, and starts to feel inferior to boys penis envy.
This view of gender divergence in personality development has implications for other aspects of development. In boys, immoral behavior is regulated through the mechanism of castration anxiety — men obey the rules because of an unconscious fear that their father will take away their penis.
In the Freudian view, the girl has already had to accept her castration as a fait accompli, which raises important questions about the relative moral strength of men and women.
The Biological View of Mental Illness The biomedical view of mental illness, which approaches behavioral and psychological abnormality as a manifestation of underlying pathological processes on the biological level, dominates discussion of mental illness.
In the biomedical viewillnesses such as depression can be explained in terms of chemical imbalances causing malfunction in the parts of the brain associated with emotion. When explaining why twice as many women as men are diagnosed with depression, adherents of the biomedical view tend to suggest that this is due to hormonal differences, and point to the existence of, for example, post-natal depression to show how fluctuations in female sex hormones can lead to abnormalities of mood.
Cultures may differ from one another in many ways, so that the findings of psychological research conducted in one culture may not apply directly to another. General Background In order to fulfil its aspiration of explaining human thinking and behavior, psychology must address the huge diversity in people around the globe.
At the same time, people are affected by a range of factors that are specific to the cultural group in which they developed and within which they live.
Psychologists should always attempt to account for the ways in which culture affects thinking and behavior. However, this has not always been the case. Psychology is a discipline that evolved within a very specific cultural context. Psychology is predominantly a white, Euro-American enterprise:Distinguish between idiographic and nomothetic approaches to the study of personality Idiographic – person-centered approaches to studying personality; focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons Nomothetic – focus on how common characteristics vary from person to person Distinguish between projective and objective measures of personality.
The dispute is whether psychology should formulate general principles or laws (sometimes referred to as the nomothetic approach), or whether psychology should study .
Personality: A Nomothetic Approach The psychometric approach to the study of personality compares individuals in terms of traits or dimensions common to everyone.
This is a nomothetic approach and two examples are Hans Eysenck’s type and Raymond Cattell’s 16PF trait theories. Discuss idiographic and nomothetic approaches in psychology (16/16 mark essay) Written for IDA from the NEW AQA Psychology spec.
It hasn't been officially published anywhere so . Thus, the therapist is functioning as a scientist, using a hypothesis-testing approach, even when treating a single case (cf. Barlow, Hayes, & Nelson, ). The results of the assessment assist the clinician in making treatment decisions.
Uses of Personality Testing; Reliability and Validity in Personality Testing Essay The Nomothetic Approach in Personality Testing Words | 7 Pages.
The Nomothetic approach is an approach to personality assessment. The term comes from the Greek word "nomos" which means law. In an online dictionary homothetic is defined as .