Exercise effects on the body

Fabiana Braga Benatti, Av. This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Exercise effects on the body

The featured article in Huffington Post2 highlights a number of biological effects that occur, from head to toe, when you exercise.

This includes changes Exercise effects on the body your: To create more ATP, your body needs extra oxygen, so breathing increases and your heart starts pumping more blood to your muscles. Without sufficient oxygen, lactic acid will form instead. Tiny tears in your muscles make them grow bigger and stronger as they heal.

As your muscles call for more oxygen as much as 15 times more oxygen than when you're at restyour breathing rate increases.

Exercise effects on the body

Once the muscles surrounding your lungs cannot move any faster, you've reached what's called your VO2 max—your maximum capacity of oxygen use. The higher your VO2 max, the fitter you are. As mentioned, your heart rate increases with physical activity to supply more oxygenated blood to your muscles.

The fitter you are, the more efficiently your heart can do this, allowing you to work out longer and harder. As a side effect, this increased efficiency will also reduce your resting heart rate. Your blood pressure will also decrease as a result of new blood vessels forming.

The increased blood flow also benefits your brain, allowing it to almost immediately function better. As a result, you tend to feel more focused after a workout. Furthermore, exercising regularly will promote the growth of new brain cells. In your hippocampus, these new brain cells help boost memory and learning.

As stated in the featured article: Many of these changes boost brain cell function and protect from diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or even stroke, and ward off age-related decline.

Some of these are well-known for their role in mood control. Exercise, in fact, is one of the most effective prevention and treatment strategies for depression. Peak bone mass is achieved in adulthood and then begins a slow decline, but exercise can help you to maintain healthy bone mass as you get older.

Weight-bearing exercise is actually one of the most effective remedies against osteoporosisas your bones are very porous and soft, and as you get older your bones can easily become less dense and hence, more brittle -- especially if you are inactive.

Continue Learning about Types Of Exercise

While I just mentioned that neurotransmitters, chemical messengers in your brain, such as mood-boosting serotonin, are released during a bout of exercise, that doesn't account for all the benefits your brain reaps.

As your heart pressure increases, the brain thinks you are either fighting the enemy or fleeing from it. This BDNF has a protective and also reparative element to your memory neurons and acts as a reset switch. That's why we often feel so at ease and like things are clear after exercising," Leo Widrich writes.

Simultaneously, your brain releases endorphins, another stress-related chemical. According to researcher MK McGovern, the endorphins minimize the physical pain and discomfort associated with exercise.

Exercise effects on the body

They're also responsible for the feeling of euphoria that many people report when exercising regularly. Scientists have been linking the benefits of physical exercise to brain health for many years, but recent research4, 5 has made it clear that the two aren't just simply related; rather, it is THE relationship.

The evidence shows that physical exercise helps you build a brain that not only resists shrinkage, but increases cognitive abilities. Exercise encourages your brain to work at optimum capacity by causing your nerve cells to multiply, strengthening their interconnections, and protecting them from damage.

There are multiple mechanisms at play here, but some are becoming more well-understood than others. The rejuvenating role of BDNF is one of them. BDNF activates brain stem cells to convert into new neurons. It also triggers numerous other chemicals that promote neural health. Further, exercise provides protective effects to your brain through: The production of nerve-protecting compounds Improved development and survival of neurons Decreased risk of heart and blood vessel diseases Altering the way damaging proteins reside inside your brain, which appears to slow the development of Alzheimer's disease Both Fasting and Exercise Trigger Brain Rejuvenation Growing evidence indicates that both fasting and exercise trigger genes and growth factors that recycle and rejuvenate your brain and muscle tissues.

These growth factors signal brain stem cells and muscle satellite cells to convert into new neurons and new muscle cells respectively.

Interestingly enough, BDNF also expresses itself in the neuro-muscular system where it protects neuro-motors from degradation. The neuromotor is the most critical element in your muscle. Without the neuromotor, your muscle is like an engine without ignition. Neuro-motor degradation is part of the process that explains age-related muscle atrophy.

So BDNF is actively involved in both your muscles and your brain, and this cross-connection, if you will, appears to be a major part of the explanation for why a physical workout can have such a beneficial impact on your brain tissue.

It, quite literally, helps prevent, and even reverse, brain decay as much as it prevents and reverses age-related muscle decay.What Are the Psychological Benefits of Exercise With Depression?

Improved self-esteem is a key psychological benefit of regular physical activity. When you exercise, your body releases chemicals.

So redefine exercise as any activity that reduces stress and connects your mind and body. You'll be more likely to continue your exercise plan and achieve the outcome you're looking for. A description of the exercise prescriptions and the effects of exercise on body weight, cardiovascular fitness (peak oxygen consumption), and nutrient intake are also shown in Table 1.

In spite of. Unexpected side effects of exercise include improved sexual function, changes in gene expression, clearer skin, and improved mood and sleep Research shows that the “secret” to increased productivity and happiness on any given day is a long-term investment in regular exercise, and a little each day appears to go further than a lot once or.

Healthier and Happier Heart.

What Happens in Your Body When You Exercise?

All forms of exercise improve the heart rate, blood flow and general heart health. Average, healthy adults have a heart rate of 60 to 80 beats per minute at rest. Researchers from the United Kingdom look at how eating versus fasting before exercise can affect a person's metabolism and ashio-midori.com How does eating before a workout affect the body?

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise: Examples and Benefits