Adversities faced by womens in present society

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Adversities faced by womens in present society

Although women constitute almost 41 per cent of the global labour force, yet the productive potential of women workers still remains grossly undermined.

This has been manifested in the nature of jobs in which women are engaged all across the world, especially in the developing world. Currently the global labourforce participation rate of women stands at 52 percent which is obviously an increase since the Beijing Platform, yet the number of unemployed women across the globe counts to 81 million1.

The recently released ILO report entitled "Women in labour markets: Measuring progress and identifying challenges" reports that despite signs of progress in gender equality over the past 15 years, there is still a significant gap between women and men in terms of job opportunities and quality of employment.

The report cites that the gender gap in labourforce participation rates has narrowed from 32 percent to 26 percent between and At the same time, the share of women in wage and salaried work grew from However, the rate of increase has slowed in the recent years in almost all regions compared to the gains in the numbers of economically active women in the Adversities faced by womens in present society and s.

Adversities faced by womens in present society

Despite the fact that employment to population rates for women across the world has also increased yet concerns still remain about the kind of jobs that women are engaged in. While more and more women are entering the workforce, they do not enjoy the same gains as the men in the world of work.

Yet the general picture still remains one of continuing gender disparity around the world in terms of both opportunities and quality of employment. At the outset, it is extremely important to identify the main gender imbalances that have been predominant a few decades ago and still operate against women within the world of work.

The first major hurdle faced by women is the entry barrier in the labour markets. For most women across the world, seeking and obtaining productive and remunerative employment is a bigger challenge when compared to the men.

This gets corroborated by the fact that nearly half In some regions, there are still less than four economically active women per 10 active men2.

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One can identify two major reasons behind such trends. In a simpler tone, there exists an unpaid care economy in which women spend most of their productive abilities and maximum time by looking after children, sick and elderly, performing the daily household chores like cooking and cleaning, yet in principle, such activities are excluded from the gross national product.

But such is vital for maintaining and reproducing the labour force, raising the human capital and consequently keeping the social fabric in good order. This kind of bias occurs when public sector withdraws support for unpaid care work on the assumption that such care is performed by women who are dependents of a male breadwinner in a family.

The counterpart to this is the assumption, by private and public sector employers, that typical workers will have little or no responsibility for providing unpaid care. This kind of bias is conducive to low labour market participation of women workers, specifically of married women.

Such bias was prevalent in the pre WWI era in Europe that broke down as women entered the labourforce during the war period and the period of Great Depression in order to sustain their families as the male members of most families either went to war or were rendered jobless due to the crisis.

However, by the end of the 20th century, it had been considerably eroded, with rising female labour market participation and a decline in the ability of households to enjoy the living standard they expect on the basis of just one wage.

But such biases are still evident in parts of developing regions across the world like South Asia, North Africa, and Middle East etc, where labourforce participation has been historically low for women. It also persists in many European countries even now and is reinforced by the two other biases that were not present in the s, but which gathered strength in the s and s as women began entering the global labourforce.

Male breadwinner bias penalises women for their unpaid investment in creation of human and social capital by denying them social entitlements on an equal basis with men, making it harder for those women workers who do want to work.

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Lastly, there remains the question of wage and non-wage discrimination that is once again prevalent all across the world. The ILO study has reiterated the fact that women workers receive less pay and fewer non-wage benefits than the male workers in similar positions.

Such discriminations also can be explained by the male breadwinner model. Such wage discriminations are profound in developing regions of the world in Africa, Latin America, South Asia, SE Asia and East Asia and are also observed in certain specific sectors within the economy3.

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Given this caveat and the above set of challenges to be met in order to make a progress in achieving gender equality in the world of work it is therefore important to frame broader macroeconomic and labour market policies attuned to a broader paradigm of gender equality, policies that ensure faster progress towards equality in occupations and employment opportunities.

Already, the current economic crisis has had its gender impact that has been strongly researched and most outcomes have shown that men and women workers have been affected differently.

It has already been experienced from the South-East Asian crisis of that women ended up loosing more jobs than men4. Such trends are already being observed in the EU and the USA, as the ILO report mentions, and therefore the real gender impact of the crisis is yet to be felt. In the interim, therefore, a major step to end gender discrimination in the world of work would be by granting men and women alike, the possibility and freedom to make choices about their labour market entry.

Giving women a chance to contribute to the economic welfare of themselves and their families through labour force engagement has proven to bring gains in nearly all areas of development, including poverty reduction, the spread of reproductive rights and associated declines in fertility and the redistribution of responsibilities and rights within the household.

This holds true for the women workers across the world, irrespective of their regions, albeit to varying degrees across the developed and the developing regions.

Obviously such a step would only be a first in building a society based on the concept of gender justice. There, of course, remains a long and difficult journey ahead to ensure gender equality in labour markets in terms of providing gainful and decent employment to women, and thereafter proceed to gaining equal status for women in every other sphere of the society by breaking the patriarchal shackles predominant in the social fabric till today.Sep 11,  · Women have struggled for centuries to obtain equal rights in all aspects of society including sports.

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Adversities faced by womens in present society

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